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The most prevalent microvascular ocular consequence of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy (DR). It's now known to be an inflammatory neurovascular consequence, with neuronal injury/dysfunction occurring before clinical microvascular damage. Importantly, the same pathophysiologic mechanisms that damage the pancreatic -cell (e.g., inflammation, epigenetic changes, insulin resistance, fuel excess, and abnormal metabolic environment) also cause cell and tissue damage, increasing the risk of all complications, including diabetic retinopathy. Over the last decade, treatments for diabetic macular edoema (DME) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), two vision-threatening consequences of diabetes, have vastly improved.
• Symptoms and causes
• Diagnosis and tests
• Management and treatment
• Surgery indications
The global diabetic retinopathy market was valued at $966 million in 2015, and is expected to reach $2,490 million by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 14.4% during the forecast period.
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