Retinal Cell Biology

The layers of Retina are laminated. The outer nuclear layer is made up of the nuclei of photoreceptors (ONL). The inner nuclear layer (INL) contains the nuclei of bipolar cells, amacrine cells, horizontal cells, and Müller glial cells, whereas the ganglion cell layer contains the nuclei of ganglion cells (GCL). The processes and synaptic terminals of photoreceptors, horizontal cells, and bipolar cells are found in the outer plexiform layer (OPL). The processes and terminals of bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells are found in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Müller glial cells' processes take up all of the area in the retina that isn't taken up by neurons or blood vessels.

•    Vision Molecular Biology
•    Visual Physiology
•    Retinal Function and Dysfunction
•    Retinal Pathophysiology
•    Therapeutic Development

Market Analysis:
Retinal biologics market revenue totaled US$ 19.96 Bn in 2021. The global market is expected to reach US$ 41.92 Bn by 2028, surging at a CAGR of 11.1% over the period of 2022-2028.

 

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